This is an anatomy and ostomy glossary to help those unfamiliar with the body and surgeries associated with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and other bowel or bladder disorders. Also see my video describing ostomies

GI Tract - the gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and anus

Colon (Large Intestine) - located between the small intestine and rectum. The colon removes water, salt, and some nutrients thereby creating stool. The ascending colon travels up the right side of the abdomen, the transverse colon runs across the abdomen, the descending colon travels down the left abdomen and the sigmoid colon is a short curving of the colon, just before the rectum.

Appendix - a small, pouch like sac of tissue located in the cecum, which is the first part of the colon. Lymphatic tissue in the appendix helps with immune function. When the entire colon or this part of the colon is removed, the appendix is removed as well.

Small Intestine - located between the stomach and large intestine. The small intestine is made up of the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum. The small intestine absorbs nutrients and minerals from food and receives bile and pancreatic juice through the pancreatic duct

Rectum - the final, or terminal, straight portion of the colon connecting to the anus

Anus - at the end of the rectum, the anus is the opening where the gastrointestinal (gi) tract ends and exits the body

Duodenum - the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach located between the stomach and the middle part of the small intestine. Food mixes in the duodenum with bile from the gall bladder and digestive juices from the pancreas

Bladder - a muscular sac in the pelvis, above and behind the pubic bone, that stores urine

Kidneys - a pair of organs with one on the left and the right side of the abdomen that removes waste products from the blood and produces urine

Ureters - tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Proctocolectomy - removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon.

Total proctocolectomy - removal of the colon, rectum and anus

Colectomy - removal of the colon. A total colectomy is the removal of the entire colon whereas a partial colectomy is the removal of only part of the colon

LAR - Low Anterior Resection Surgery is surgery to treat cancer of the rectum by removing the part of the rectum that contains cancer which is then reconnected to the intestine

Ostomy - a surgically created opening in the gastrointestinal system to allow for passage of stool or in the urinary system to pass urine

Stoma - a surgically created opening in the abdomen surface constructed of intestinal tissue for an ostomy. Stool or urine leaves the body through this opening instead of the anus or urethra

Colostomy - a surgically created opening between the colon and the abdominal surface. A colostomy can have a loop stoma (one stoma with two different openings due to a loop of the large intestine being used to create the stoma), end stoma (end of the colon is used to create the stoma) or loop-end stoma (looks the same as a loop stoma but is connected differently internally). A colostomy can be created at any of these four sections of colon and the type of colostomy is identified by the location of the stoma along the colon

Ileostomy - also called a standard or brooke ileostomy, a surgically created opening between the small intestine and the abdominal surface. Stool output is liquid or paste like with digestive enzymes. An end ileostomy is where the end of the ileum of the small intestine is used to create the stoma whereas a loop ileostomy utilizes a loop of the small intestine to create the stoma

K-Pouch (kock pouch or continent ileostomy) - the last portion of the small intestine is used to create an internal reservoir that is attached to the abdomen surface by a special ileostomy that can be intubated by a flexible catheter to release gas and stool. A kock pouch can also be made from the small intestine for a continent urostomy

BCIR - Barnett Continent Intestinal Reservoir was modified from the K pouch

Urostomy - a surgically created opening that allows urine to pass, may also be called an ileal conduit

Continent Urostomy - an internal pouch or reservoir is made that has valves to keep the urine in the pouch until it is removed via a catheter in the stoma or through the urethra depending on the type of procedure completed

Mitrofanoff - a small channel connecting the bladder to the abdomen surface and a catheter is used empty the bladder through the channel

Indiana Pouch - continent urostomy where the pouch or reservoir is made from the colon and stoma is made from the terminal ileum of the small intestine

Ileal Neobladder - continent urostomy where the pouch or reservoir is made from the small intestine and the outlet is the urethra, with no stoma

Jpouch - also known as an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) a reservoir created from the distal small intestine that is joined to the anal canal. Sometimes this may also be called a S-pouch or W-pouch depending on how the reservoir is created.

IRA - ileal rectal anastomosis the large intestine is removed but the rectum remains intact where the small intestine is then connected to the rectum

Straight Pull Thru - also known as an ileoanal anastomosis where the large intestine and the lining of the rectum is removed. The small intestine is connected to the anus.

Whipple Procedure - also known as a pancreaticoduodenectomy to remove the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gall bladder and bile duct

ERCP - Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography is a specialized technique used to study the bile ducts, pancreatic duct and gallbladder. Treatments that can be completed through ERCP include:
Sphincterotomy - cutting the muscle that surrounds the opening of the ducts or papilla to enlarge the opening
Stone Removal - removal of bile duct stones
Stent Placement - stents placed into the bile or pancreatic ducts to bypass strictures of the duct
Balloon Dilation - inflation of a balloon to stretch a stricture
Tissue Sampling - samples of tissue may be taken from the papilla and bile or pancreatic ducts

Desmoid Tumor - a rare disease that is common among those with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis that creates noncancerous growth in the connective tissues that provide strength and flexibility to structures such as bones, ligaments, and muscles. These tumors can develop anywhere in the body although most often are found in the abdomen, arms and legs. Desmoids can grow into nerves or blood vessels and exert pressure on other organs. Desmoids are also known as aggressive fibromatosis

Polyp - abnormal tissue growths most commonly found in the colon but can develop elsewhere in the body

Gastric Fundic Polyps - polyps that grow in the lining of the stomach

Sessile Polyp - polyp that is slightly flattened and broad based

Serrated Polyp - polyp that has a saw-tooth appearance, can be sessile or traditional serrated

Adenoma - a precancerous polyp that is a gland like growth on the mucous membrane that can have a growth pattern of tubular (protrudes), villous (flat and spreading), or a mix of the two called tubuvillous

Hyperplastic Polyp - typically benign