If you're like me, you haven't heard a lot about different ostomy options for colon removal. Individuals frequently hear about the typical ostomy option - the ileostomy (even though many incorrectly refer to ileostomies as colostomies thinking colostomy is the general term for an ostomy). The conventional ileostomy has an external stoma with a wafer and pouch system and involuntarily releases gas and feces into the pouching system worn over the stoma. However, there is another kind of ileostomy called a continent ileostomy that is created internally allowing for gas and feces to be eliminated by inserting a catheter through a stoma into an internal pouch or reservoir that collects gas and feces.
The continent ileostomy is created from the end of the small intestine and another segment of intestine that is telescoped into itself that creates a nipple valve. The stoma created for a continent ileostomy is flush with the skin whereas a conventional ileostomy stoma protrudes from the skin. A small covering is recommended to be worn over the continent ileostomy stoma to absorb mucus from the intestine. The nipple valve is self sealing to prevent gas or feces from exiting the stoma involuntarily.
The first continent ileostomy was devised by Dr. Koch known as a Koch Pouch, sometimes spelled Kock or referred to as a K-Pouch. The technique was later revised by Dr. Barnett and is known as a BCIR - Barnett Continent Intestinal Reservoir.
The Koch Pouch has an increased risk of a fistula developing due to a triangulated suture line. A fistula can occur due to breakdown in the internal pouch wall that allows waste to leak out that occurs until an abscess on the surface of the skin appears. The BCIR reduces the risk of a fistula developing due to a lateral internal pouch design that has a single longitudinal suture line.
The BCIR changes the direction of the nipple valve in comparison to how it is with a Koch Pouch. This change in direction allows for the muscle contractions to direct waste and mucus toward the internal pouch rather than the stoma. An intestinal collar is also created by the BCIR that tightens as the pouch fills with waste. This collar tightening helps to prevent the nipple valve from slipping.
According to WebMD, following the creation of the continent ileostomy, an indwelling catheter will stay inserted into the internal pouch to allow for continuous draining for 3-4 weeks. The catheter will need to be irrigated several times a day as well with an ounce of water. Once the internal pouch heals and matures, the pouch will need to be drained several times per day. Without draining, the pouch will fill and risk tearing or the nipple valve slipping or leaking.
Draining the internal pouch can be accomplished by relaxing the abdominal muscles before lubricating the catheter and inserting it through the stoma to the preset mark on the catheter. Once continuous drainage use has been discontinued, it is recommended to drain the internal pouch every 2 hours during the day, upon awakening in the morning and before going to bed. It is recommended not to eat or drink within 2 hours of bedtime and the catheter can be set to constant drainage during the night. Over time, the time in between internal pouch drains can be lengthened resulting in the ability to drain the pouch 4 to 6 times a day and irrigated twice a day. It is also recommended to drain the internal pouch anytime feeling full or bloated and before exercising or going to bed.
A conventional ileostomy and a continent ileostomy both are life saving and allow an individual to continue living with minor adjustments to activities. An ostomy of any kind does not have to limit an individual's lifestyle and can allow for increased quality of life. If you are facing surgery to remove your colon for any reason, a continent ileostomy may be another option for you to discuss with your doctor.